The Assembly reorganised and standardised parish sizes on the basis of both geography and population. The constitution was passed on July 12, 1970 by the National Assembly. The departments shall, moreover, have cognisance of suits arising in this connection, brought by the parishes and by the priests. The first being that Buddhism's leaders are only called priests or clergy by westerners who attempt to reconcile their own religious traditions with the Buddhist traditions. In effect, this banned the practice by which younger sons of noble families would be appointed to a bishopric or other high church position and live off of its revenues without even moving to the region in question and taking up the duties of the office. These are the clergy of 'Christendom'. The new bishop may not apply to the pope for any form of confirmation but shall write to him, as to the visible head of the universal Church, as a testimony to the unity of faith and communion maintained with him… Article Twenty One.
There was no requirement that the electors be Catholics, creating the ironic situation that Protestants and even Jews could elect the nominally Catholic priests and bishops. Right of accused to be notified of charges against them. Monastic lifestyle was also to face changes because the Civil Constitution forbade vows. In February 1790, the Assembly ruled that monastic vows were no longer legally binding. The new constitution left without changes only orders that had to do with nursing the sick and with children.
Forcing clerics to swear loyalty to the nation created a crisis of conscience. Criticisms of clerical behaviour and calls for church reform did not always mean opposition to the church, however, nor did it suggest atheism or a lack of faith. Before the ceremony of consecration begins, the bishop-elect shall take a solemn oath, in the presence of the municipal officers, of the people, and of the clergy, to guard with care the faithful of his diocese who are confided to him, to be loyal to the nation, the law, and the king, and to support with all his power the constitution decreed by the National Assembly and accepted by the king… Article Twenty Five. The Civil Constitution alienated thousands of deeply religious French citizens; it pressured the Pope into condemning the revolution; and it gave reactionaries fresh grounds to attack the National Constituent Assembly. The salaries of the parish priests shall be as follows: in Paris, 6,000 livres; in cities having a population of 50,000 or over, 4,000 livres; in those having a population of less than 50,000 and more than 10,000, 3,000 livres; in cities and towns of which the population is below 10,000 and more than 3,000, 2,400 livres. They were deported or died for their actions. New bishops and priests were to vow fidelity to the new order and the Civil Constitution.
Right of accused to subpoena witnesses. In all other cities, towns, and villages where the parish shall have a population between three thousand and twenty-five hundred, two thousand livres; in those between twenty-five hundred and two thousand, eighteen hundred livres; in those having a population of less than two thousand, and more than one thousand, the salary shall be fifteen hundred livres; in those having one thousand inhabitants and under, twelve hundred livres. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy came before the Assembly 29 May 1790. Anti-Catholic persecution by the State would intensify into de-Christianization and state support for the Cult of Reason in 1793-1794. Note also that, even in this revolutionary legislation, there are strong remnants of Gallican royalism.
This was the most radical change of the revolution to that point. Repeal of the Civil Constitution After Thermidor, the Convention restored freedom of religion February 21, 1795 , but the schism between the civilly constituted French Church and the papacy was only resolved in 1801, when the Concordat was signed. Louis' execution marked the beginning of the Reign of Terror. Each department shall form a single diocese, and each diocese shall have the same extent and the same limits as the department… Article Four. Only four bishops actively dissented. It also sought to settle the chaos caused by the earlier confiscation of Church lands and the abolition of the tithe. Under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, issued in 1790, bishops and priests became elected, salaried officials.
Before the constitution, Clergy was under the control of the monarch but they're not part of the government officials. The king had to accept the document publicly and was therefore disappointed. At the same time, there was enough support for a basically Catholic form of Christianity that some means had to be found to fund the Church in France. However, the Pope did not accept any article and the king had to express his public assent without the assent of the Pope. In short, new bishops were required to swear loyalty to the State in far stronger terms than to any religious doctrine. The departments shall, moreover, have cognizance of suits arising in this connection, brought by the parishes and by the priests.
The vast majority of revolutionaries retained Christian religious beliefs and maintained support for the church. Protestants' Right to Catholic Property The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was preceded by other decrees that increased France's control of the Catholic Church. All vested with an ecclesiastical office or function shall be subject to this, without distinction or exception. It was passed by the National Constituent Assembly on July 12th 1790. By maintaining respect for other people, even if you disagree with their opinions, we will be able to unite and come to a better understanding of each other and our Constitution.
In this caricature, after the decree of 16 February 1790, monks and nuns enjoy their new freedom. The Civil Constitution became a significant cause of division and disruption in the new society. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy came before the Assembly May 29, 1790. These refractory priests often enjoyed the support of their parishioners, who objected to a secular government interfering in spiritual matters. If these changes were not divisive enough, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy also required bishops to swear an oath of loyalty. Debate over the Civil Constitution On 6 February 1790 one week before banning monastic vows, the asked its ecclesiastical committee which was promptly expanded from 15 to 30 members to prepare the reorganization of the clergy. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy provides an important link between the liberal French Revolution of 1789 and the radical French Revolution of 1793.
The salaries of bishops, in contrast, were significantly reduced to around 12,000 livres per annum. Several critics of the Catholic church were clergymen themselves, men like , and Henri Grégoire. The Pope appointed bishops and priests but according to the new constitution, bishops and priests were not appointed but elected by constituents. While there was a higher rate of rejection in urban areas, most of these refractory priests like most of the population lived in the countryside, and the Civil Constitution generated considerable resentment among religious peasants. Legal status of the Church in France under the Civil Constitution As noted above, even prior to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, church property was nationalized and monastic vows were forbidden. All other bishoprics in the eighty-three departments of the kingdom, which are not included by name in the present article, are, and forever shall be, abolished.