Only eight per cent of all German workers worked in factories employing over a thousand working men each. Stalin's argue was that it was necessary to pay higher wages to certain workers in order to encourage increased output. The sensational show trial that followed was actually a cynical ruse to deflect the attention of foreign journalists from the famine. During its very first days the Communist Party worked out a program for mobilizing all the forces to defeat the Nazi invaders. In Moscow, Stalin responded to their unyielding defiance by dictating a policy that would deliberately cause mass starvation and result in the deaths of millions. Cities such as Moscow and Leningrad doubled in size in the early 1930s. Gosplan: Gosudarstvenniy Komitet po Planirovaniyu State Planning Committee ; committee responsible for economic planning in the Soviet Union.
All in all, however, the Soviet economy had become industrialized by the end of the 1930s. Nevertheless, the measures undertaken by the Communist Party and the Soviet government to strengthen national defense made it possible to significantly shorten the time for switching the nation's economy to a war footing. This proved successful in industrializing Russia and greatly increasing industrial output which improved the economy. Trotsky was a great thinker, writer and speaker. Russia had for centuries been an absolute monarchy ruled by a tsar, but between 1905 and 1922 the country underwent tremendous change, the result of two wars World War I, 1914-18 and Civil War, 1917-22 and a series of uprisings that culminated in the October Revolution of 1917. Were the five- year plans successful? Stalin's Five-Year Plan was a road map for a great campaign of forced industrialization.
Stepanova admits no fault or imperfection in The Results of the First Five-Year Plan. Records were kept of workers' lateness, absenteeism and bad workmanship. Report Delivered at the Joint Plenum of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission of the C. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
When Lenin and the Bosheviks were in power, young people were encouraged to learn trades and engage in activities that were of practical value. What started as positive propaganda became, little by little, a means to hide a disastrous economic policy from the rest of the world. This plan was not as successful as the first Five-Year Plan. The anticipated surplus was to pay for industrialization. By choosing to include images rather than just articles, the public would be able to see with their own eyes the accomplishments achieved under Stalin. It became an absolute necessity for the State to project a pristine image of its society no matter how dire the situation became.
Moscow and Leningard doubled in size as new cities were emerging across the country. As a result, four years of chaos and conflict followed in which Ukrainian national troops fought against Lenin's Red Army, and also against Russia's White Army troops still loyal to the Czar as well as other invading forces including the Germans and Poles. Coincidentally, a drought occurred in the Ukraine, resulting in widespread starvation and a surge of popular resentment against Lenin and the Soviets. Oxford, England ; New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. People were arrested and sent to camps on a very wide variety of charges, including simply having the ill luck of being born to bourgeois or kulak parents. Not until Stalin and his closest associates see fit to reveal what happened in the crucial months of that autumn will we know how close the Soviet regime came to choosing a course which would have altered the whole history of Russia and therefore of the present world.
Stalin also created collectivization which led to the starvation or death of kulkaks. The rate of collectivization in 1930-32 was blindingly fast, even too fast. Originally, the first plan, officially dated from the latter part of 1928, called for difficult but not impossible goals. Additionally, peasants and unskilled workers were often employed in jobs requiring skilled workers, and so there were often flaws in the machinery produced. He believed to be backward was to be defeated and enslaved. He had a particular problem with unskilled workers who felt they were not being adequately rewarded.
Meanwhile, nearby Soviet-controlled granaries were said to be bursting at the seams from huge stocks of 'reserve' grain, which had not yet been shipped out of the Ukraine. The results of the five-year plan are still looked upon today as one of the most stunning periods of economic growth. During this period 1928-1932, massive industrial centers emerged in areas that were highly isolated before. His every gesture was a rebuke to the thousand little bureaucrats who had inflicted their puny greatness upon me in these Russian years. Tens of thousands lives were lost. See the Related Link below. It was based upon the immortal ideas of V.
By mid 1932, nearly 75 percent of the farms in the Ukraine had been forcibly collectivized. We must make good this distance in ten years. He also wanted to achieve self-sufficiency, and to improve standards of living of people in Russia to bridge the gap between them and the West. Lenin on the defense of the socialist fatherland. What was life like for peasants on the new collective farms? New industries were built in entirely new cities i. Stepanova admits no fault or imperfection in The Results of the First Five-Year Plan.