Among birds the most famous is Great Indian bustard. Between 1990 and 2010, as evidenced by satellite data, India has reversed the deforestation trend. Other animals are wild ass, blackbuck, desert cat, caracal, etc. Indian forests represent one of the 12 mega biodiverse regions of the world. Pigs, crab-eating macaque, palm civet and deers are other important land animals of the islands. The policy was revised in 1952 and again in 1988.
Important fauna include elephant; wild boar; deers cheetal or axis deer, hog deer, swamp deer or barasinga, sambhar ; antelopes four-horned antelope, nilgai, blackbuck, etc. It submitted its report in March 2006. Protecting Vultures: The report of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries made a shocking revelation on the population of vultures that has decimated in the entire region of South Asia. Over 4000 mammal species are found here. Prior to the 1980s, India deployed a bureaucratic method to estimate forest coverage.
Mangrove cover is the area covered under mangrove vegetation as interpreted digitally from remote sensing data. The 2009 Indian national forest policy document emphasizes the need to combine India's effort at forest conservation with sustainable forest management. The elephant habitat has shrunk over the years, and poaching for elephant tusks has endangered the species, especially in southern India. In 2002, non-wood forest products were a source of significant supplemental income to over 400 million people in India, mostly rural. These colonial laws brought the forests under the centralised sovereignty of the state. India has a thriving non-wood forest products industry, which produces latex, gums, resins, essential oils, flavours, fragrances and aroma chemicals, sticks, , thatching materials and medicinal plants.
Hunting should be strictly controlled. The imperial needs dictated the British interests in the Indian forest resources, which resulted in the establishment of control over forest resources. Checking soil erosion and denudation in catchment areas of rivers, lakes and reservoirs; 4. Ministry of Environment and Forests. A protest that became Chipko movement followed. India has one of the richest variety of bird species on earth, hosting about 12. This article is a critical overview of the changing paradigms of successive forest policies in India and argues that the real participation of the community can be ensured only when it is accorded a meaningful stake in all forest matters affecting the community.
His main focus has been on the attitude and action of peasants during the crisis of famine; and how the peasants perceived and responded to the crisis created by drought, dearth and famine. Following the leads of Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, a number of other states also established community-based forestry agencies that emphasized programmes on farm forestry, timber management, extension forestry, of degraded forests, and use of forests for recreational purposes. This led to a programme named Joint Forest Management, which proposed that specific villages in association with the forest department will manage specific forest blocks. Instead of criminalising their skills at finding, recognising, attracting and capturing birds, India should offer them employment to re-apply their skills through scientific management, protection and wildlife preservation. For instance, leaves are collected during April-May, seeds fall with the pre-monsoon showers and collected from under the tree and pine trees are trapped for resin during warm and hot weather. Another fast disappearing species is the one-horned rhinoceros which is housed in the Kaziranga National Park Assam , the home of wild buffaloes, tigers and sambhars as well, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, also in Assam, which is famous for wild buffaloes, rhinos and elephants. Eco-development Scheme: An eco- development scheme in and around national parks and sanctuaries including tiger reserves was also launched to provide alternate sources of sustenance to the communities living at the fringes of national parks and sanctuaries including tiger reserves, to improve the ecological productivity of the buffer zones of protected areas through the involvement of these communities in protecting these sanctuaries and national parks and their wildlife; through a well-designed package of activities aimed at providing sustenance to the forest side communities and ameliorating their hardships to minimise conflicts between those communities and the protection staffs.
This paper analyses the impact of colonialism on the economic exploitation of the forest resources of south India and its consequences for the environment and hill inhabitants of the region during the pre-Forest Act colonial era, 1793—1882. Users can get information on National Environment Policy 2006, National Zoo Policy, National Forest Policy, Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2002, etc. The crop yields are very poor with jhum cultivation. Forestry in India is more than just about wood and fuel. Logs account for 67% of all wood and wood products imported into India due to local preference for unprocessed wood. These forests support a variety of ecosystems with diverse flora and fauna. The cumulative area afforested during the 1951-91 period was nearly 179,000 square kilometres.
For example, the pressure on forests was increasing as a result of expansion of agriculture, expansion of railways etc. Now, it is reported only from India and Nepal. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. The major source of food production for them is shifting cultivation, which is an integral part of the economy in tribal culture. In India, the first biosphere reserve—Nilgiri biosphere reserve— came into being in 1986.
The project is being implemented in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Now the demand of resources by Indians increased alongwith the British demands. Further, it argues that the colonial government policies were not aimed to conserve the forest resources but to commercialise these resources. Most species are tree dwellers. If we looks at the life of paharias and santhals during 1855 we ll found that britishers left no possible sign of cruelity with tribes. It is found in the Gir National Park Gujarat and in the Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary near Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. After a long and continuous denial of the crucial stake that local communities have in their nearby forests, it was only in late 1980s that they were accorded some space.
Users can get to know about actions and reports. The trappers lead a life of poverty and migrate over time. The movement grew and Indian government responded by imposing a 15-year ban on felling all trees above 1000 metres in the region directly as a result of the Chipko agitations. The government gave out these contracts without any restrictions in regard to conservation and these contractors began cutting trees indiscriminately as a result forest around train tracks disappeared. According to one set of writers: Since the early 1970s, as they realised that deforestation threatened not only the ecology but their livelihood in a variety of ways, people have become more interested and involved in conservation. India is the world's third largest hardwood log importer.