For theorist Erik Erikson, babies are in the trust vs. The school approached development psychoanalytically and Erikson was soon to master this theory and begin developing his own theories relating to personality development. This is the point where you will start to see more differences in the two theories. Proposed a series of predetermined stages related to personality development. The theory isn't limited solely to males, as Freud believed that girls had a sexual attraction to their fathers; this was later referred to as the Electra Complex. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. With this growing independence comes many choices about activities to be pursued.
They develop feelings of contentment and integrity if they believe that they have led a happy, productive life. Erikson accepts the notion of Freud for the early stages of life and agrees with him that libidinal or emotional energy exists at birth and is at the core of human functioning. Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. This conflict is called Oedipus or Electra complex. Each of these theorists had various stages that went from just being born to adulthood.
These additional stages are intimacy vs. Stage 2— Early Childhood: This is a period in which autonomy contends with shame and doubt. Stagnation Household, Workmates Can I make my life count? And without the nurturing of love, first for another and increasingly toward humanity, on the whole, there will be no care to impart wisdom to the next generation. Although all three provide their own theories on this subject each theory shares similarities and differences with one another. Trust Versus Mistrust From ages birth to one year, children begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregiver s. If infants are treated cruelly or their needs are not met appropriately, they will likely grow up with a sense of mistrust for people in the world. Freud was the founder of the psychoanalysis which is the analysis of the human psyche, with his investigations he discovered the id, ego and superego.
The social task of middle adulthood is generativity vs. If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities. Should parents fail to provide a secure environment and to meet the child's basic needs; a sense of mistrust will result. Another area where teenagers are deciding for themselves is their career choice, and often parents want to have a decisive say in that role. Jung formulated his ideas about 100 years ago, and great advances have been made in the field of genetics since that time. Nevertheless, life becomes rich due to the increased wisdom through varieties of experiences, good or bad and leads to end.
If you are an introvert, then you are a person who may be quiet and reserved, or you may be social, but your energy is derived from your inner psychic activity. When he graduated from highschool, he spent some time travelling around Europe, observing people and recording his experiences in a journal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551-558. Role Confusion During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. They need privacy and tend to be self-sufficient. The third coping style, moving away from people, centers on detachment and isolation.
Freud describes the second stage as the anal stage. However, Erikson is rather vague about the causes of development. Inferiority where the child is mainly concerned with the acquisition of new skills, leading to a sense of self-gratification after successful acquisition of new skills and abilities. Norton, 1998 , 4, 105. While Erikson's theories drew upon Freud's research, he believed that cultural and social elements play a more important part in personality development.
To resolve these feelings of uncertainty, the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care. Given the right conditions—and Erikson believes these are essentially having enough space and time, a psychosocial moratorium, when a person can freely experiment and explore—what may emerge is a firm sense of identity, an emotional and deep awareness of who he or she is. Psychosexual development is a theory that Freud based upon the Greek tragedy by Sophocles Oedipus Rex and is often referred to as the Oedipus Complex. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of fidelity. The dialogical self: Beyond individualism and rationalism. Freud believed that an individual can develop a fixation if gratification is not offered at every stage.
Youth is a time of radical change—the great body changes accompanying puberty, the ability of the mind to search one's own intentions and the intentions of others, the suddenly sharpened awareness of the roles society has offered for later life. Guilt Around age three and continuing to age six, children assert themselves more frequently. He believed it was a period where the focus of development shifts to social bonding in order to establish meaning in one's life and assert individuality. Despair As we grow older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person. The infant develops a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence.
They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. He subsequently founded a school of psychology called individual psychology, which focuses on our drive to compensate for feelings of inferiority. During this stage, the individual there is a prevalent manifestation of nostalgia Hayes, 1999. Young children, especially, have enormous creativity, and whatever is in them rises to the surface in free play. We are afraid of rejections such as being turned down or our partners breaking up with us. To begin, while looking… 787 Words 3 Pages Nieztsche and Freud both philosophers of the 19th century, each famous for their different but similar metaphors.